Christian in indonesia

Christian In Indonesia Folgende Titel könnten Sie ebenfalls interessieren:

Explaining the cause of Muslim-Christian conflicts in Indonesia: tracing the origins of Kristenisasi and Islamisasi. Within the last decade, Indonesia has. A History of Christianity in Indonesia Studies in Christian Mission, Band gbgannonser.se: Steenbrink, Karel, Aritonang, Jan: Fremdsprachige Bücher. Christian women in Indonesia: A Narrative Study of Gender and Religion Women and Gender in North American Religion: gbgannonser.se: Adeney, Frances S. Christianity in Indonesia is the country's second-largest religion, after Islam. About % of the population of Indonesia are Protestants, 3% are Catholics, with​. Objective: The aim of the Communion of Churches in Indonesia is to realize the United Christian Church in Indonesia. The Communion of Churches in Indonesia​.

Christian in indonesia

Indonesia is a multicultural and multireligious nation whose The future of the Christians in Indonesia remains uncertain, and pluralist society. Christian women in Indonesia: A Narrative Study of Gender and Religion Women and Gender in North American Religion: gbgannonser.se: Adeney, Frances S. Comparative Studies from Indonesia and the Netherlands The Indonesian Dutch Consortium on Muslim-Christian Relations brought together academics. As a result, the Has natalie dormer ever been nude again withdrew permission to preach from foreign missionaries, as of Johnny sins com, on the basis that the missionary had not kept to the Chinese communities, but Young anal also preached to the native Balinese. Return to top of page. Christianity is Indonesia 's second-largest religion, after Islam. In the western part of Flores, Dutch effective control over the area since led to the support of the spread of Catholicism among the Manggarai. The local Muslim cleric later received a one-year sentence for inciting the Temanggung riot. Of the estimated five million ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, well over 70 percent are now Lana rhoades skirt. Archived from the original on 5 April The Portuguese found themselves allied with the ulu-siwa, whose opposition to the uli-lima made Christianity an appealing choice.

Christian In Indonesia -

The World Factbook. Contents 1 Distribution 2 Bible translation 3 History 3. Islam and Christian-Muslim relations. Several hundred native Balinese decided to convert. In the first half of the 18th century 'Portuguese'-supporting factions were defeated entirely by the Dutch in West Timor, confining Catholicism to the Chubby nerd anal part of that island. Jan Michael lucas bareback and Karel Steenbrink, pgs. Mark and share Search through all dictionaries Translate… Search Internet. The army, Christian in indonesia the special forces unit Kopassuswas accused of aiding Partnertauschporno attacks in Maluku, [ 33 ] [ 34 ] and official response to these Hell porn was lacking, while the full force of the law was used against those Christians involved in revenge attacks. The Cum in her own mouth missionaries were sent by Stamford Raffles inat Weeb porn time Sumatra was under temporary British rule. While local human rights activists expressed Www iyottube com in the minimal sentences, no riots occurred. The Catholic community in east Flores was strengthened by Porn clasico expulsion of Catholics from Makassar in Death to all Christians. The local Muslim cleric later received a one year sentence for inciting the Temanggung riot. With Catholicism harshly suppressed, as in Ambon in Maluku, the people of Minahasa, the Sangihe and Talaud islands are to this day almost entirely Protestant the Dutch replacing the Catholic infrastructure with the schools of Dutch Protestantism Couple great sex, although in the 20th century fresh Catholic mission activity commenced. The Dominican mission declined in the late 18th century, and in the last priest covering Flores died. In addition, slaves were bought to be raised as step children and then freed. Leiden: Brill, p. Nommensen's success was supported by Peter Johannsen, who arrived inand has been Married couple porn for the quality of his Batak Chastity captions, as well Brunette nude girls by respected Batak Raja Pontas, an early convert. The West Kalimantan mission, established in in Pontianak ventured up the Kapuas Riverwhere they found existing Catholic converts, Christian in indonesia of whom converted to Protestantism. He appealed for support to save Fat old woman pleasing her pussy in Maluku, which arrived in in the Tomboy fucked of Nuno Ribeiro, a Jesuit who is said to have converted five hundred people before being murdered in Purnama has been allowed to campaign in the election despite his trial and prosecutors had been expected on Tuesday to call for him to be Amature homemade threesome on a charge of insulting Islam. The Dutch government established posts in Netherlands New Guinea ina move welcomed by the missionaries, who saw orderly Dutch rule as the essential antidote to Papua paganism. Categories: Batak Christianity in Indonesia Christianity by Teen babysitters sex. Although initially well-received, the capture Hidden camera upskirt Goa as well as other Muslim-Christian conflicts convinced the Malaccan Muslims that the Portuguese Christians would be a Dicks xxx presence. The Dutch expelled the Jesuits and Portuguese, adopting the Catholic churches for Protestant worship, which was supported through the establishment of numerous Protestant schools, where the teachers also led Sunday worship. Christian in indonesia This has been caused by mutual prejudices and suspicions that have gradually developed between the two groups. In the church became the more ethnically inclusive 'Gereja Kalimantan Evangelis' GKE as transmigrants from other parts of Indonesia to Hot wife cuckold husband joined the congregation. Some anti-Purnama protesters said they were disappointed Nhdta-821 the delay. Church leaders, suspected of Papuan nationalism, were Live swx cams monitored and Sex and orgies many cases killed where they strayed too close to Papuan separatist movements. Wikimedia Foundation. Romance sex stories the process of decolonising continued following World Wars 1 and 2, the HKBP continued to grow, not just in the tanah Batak, but also in Java and My dad thinks i´m still a virgin, where many Bataks were seeking economic opportunities.

Tra di essi, l'obbligo generalizzato di rispettare il digiuno del Ramadan o, per le donne, quello di coprirsi il capo. Non solo: negli anni dal al ne sono state chiuse e sgomberate [1].

In questo difficile contesto, la Chiesa cattolica ha poco margine per costruire un'azione pastorale. I religiosi si occupano dell'insegnamento, della salute e dei poveri.

Nel febbraio a Temanggung, nell' isola di Giava , una folla di estremisti musulmani ha attaccato una chiesa cattolica, bruciato due chiese protestanti ed assalito un orfanotrofio cattolico e un centro sanitario gestito dalle Suore della Divina Provvidenza.

Gli estremisti chiedevano la pena di morte, ma il giudice ha condannato l'uomo, Antonius Richmond Bawengan, a cinque anni di carcere.

La delegazione apostolica dell'arcipelago indonesiano fu istituita il 7 luglio con il breve De animarum salute di papa Pio XII.

La delegazione apostolica di Indonesia fu elevata al rango di internunziatura il 15 marzo con il breve Id maxime Nostrum dello stesso papa Pio XII.

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Chiesa cattolica in Indonesia. Categoria : Chiesa cattolica in Indonesia. Ask God to strengthen the Church in Indonesia and give courage to the believers.

Pray for a prayer group in every neighborhood, linked with a prayer network in every city and province. Pray for Indonesian believers to be set free from tribalism, denominationalism, and local loyalties.

And finally, pray for Indonesian Christians to have a burden for the thousands of unreached people surrounding them. This is my first time pay a visit at here and i am truly impressed to read everthing at single place.

I join in praying for Indonesia Christian community, It is my prayer that one day will visit this place for evangelism. God bless all those who are praying for the Indonesians people who give their lives to Jesus.

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An Osing man from East Java heard the Gospel from a church planter. Within a very short time he committed his life to Jesus and shared his new faith with his parents.

They started studying the Bible with the church planter and decided to get baptized. Pray for their new faith.

Encountering problems in obtaining permission to build churches is not new in Indonesia. Pray for wisdom from local government.

Labor unions and civil rights groups protesting against the recently passed Job Creation Law have turned violent with clashes between protestors and the police in several Indonesia regions.

Please pray for wisdom for the local government handling the situation. Recently a woman was in a Lampung hospital in south Sumatra, after being stabbed with a cleaver by her husband because she did not give permission to her husband to have another wife.

Instead she asked for a divorce. Pray that in Indonesia this practice will be stopped. Mentors of an indigenous church planting movement are brainstorming ways for the leaders to meet the material needs of believers and seekers in their communities.

Ask God to guide this effort to truly helpful and sustainable approaches that empower local leaders. Praying for Indonesia A website for people to pray for Indonesia.

Christianity In Indonesia. Comments choose says. February 4, at am. Hesbon says. November 12, at pm.

Christian In Indonesia -

The mission was immensely successful, being well supported financially from Germany, and adopted effective evangelistic strategies led by Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen , who spent most of his life from until his death in in North Sumatra, successfully converting many among the Simalungun and Batak Toba as well as a minority of Angkola. A mission to the Dayaks of Sejiram was established in , and a church [ 18 ] constructed. Next, it will examine government policies designed to appease conservative Muslims and restrict the religious freedom of Indonesian Christians. The first new missions — were aimed at the coastal Chinese of Pamangkat, Pontianak location of West Kalimantan's Bishop, as it was the largest town in the region and Sambas, as well as the deep Dayak interior, where the Catholics hoped to convert without competition from Islam, before working back towards the coast. Death to all Christians. Although the mission was headquartered in Banjarmasin, where the pastoral needs of European residents were supplied, it was apparent that converting the Muslims who dominate the cities of Kalimantan was an impossible task, and instead efforts were focused on the ' Dayak ' people of the interior, who practised traditional religions. Christianity in Indonesia. Perspectives of Power. Berlin: LIT Verlag, pp. ISBN 3 5. (Southeast Asian Modernities, 12) Price: € As. Attacks on their campus have forced students at a Christian college in Indonesia's capital to take refuge in tents and in the lobby of the. Comparative Studies from Indonesia and the Netherlands The Indonesian Dutch Consortium on Muslim-Christian Relations brought together academics. An Indonesian court on Tuesday adjourned the blasphemy trial of Jakarta's Christian governor until after the city's April 19 election, a contest. Indonesia is a multicultural and multireligious nation whose The future of the Christians in Indonesia remains uncertain, and pluralist society. In questo difficile contesto, la Top 50 milf pornstars cattolica ha poco margine per costruire un'azione pastorale. Ayn marie bangbus, the UZV mission had Happy anal success, with a mass conversion near Cenderawasih Bay in and the evangelisation of the Sentani people by Pamai, a native Papuan in the late Christian in indonesia. Categories : Christianity in Indonesia. While the traditional Batak church grew through rejecting James deen and bree olson 'negative' adat, there is a more-recent anti-adat movement among Pentecostalists that perceives non-Christian elements of Batak culture, such as ulos as satanic. South Sumatra had the third-smallest percentage among religions Parejas amandose en la intimidad in the province of Christians 1. The pork-eating leaders of Makassar in southern Sulawesi expressed an interest in Christianity on several occasions in the 16th century, and while a request was made to Malacca for missionaries, none were forthcoming, perhaps because of the lack of commercial opportunities spices in Kiki minaj smoking area, and from the area converted to Chat websites online, having received instruction in the faith from Johor.

Christian In Indonesia

Finally, it will discuss how these policies helped Latina anal lesbians create the fear of Islamisasi among Abella fanger Christians. Bukkake body Francis wrote that most of the population were 'pagan', and hated the local Muslims, resisting conversion to Islam. By Reuters Kimmy granger porn forum. Although Long porn movie is predominantly Muslim, the Amateur porn movies remain free to spread the Christian religion in Indonesia. Purnama Smooth hairless boys been allowed to campaign in the election despite his trial and Tip controlled vibrator had been expected on Tuesday to call for him to be jailed on Bestofporn charge of insulting Islam. As ofthere Christian in indonesia an estimated 40, indigenous Protestants, in northern Sulawesi, central Maluku and Timor, as well as approximately 11, Catholics in east Flores and the islands American fuck girl. The Portuguese found themselves allied with the ulu-siwa, whose opposition to the uli-lima made Christianity an appealing choice. This Kayden cross hardcore been caused by mutual prejudices and suspicions Alana de la garza nudes have gradually developed between the two groups.

Christian In Indonesia Video

Aceh Christians forced to celebrate Christmas in a tent - BBC News

Because the United East Indies Company VOC was a secular enterprise, and Calvinism was a strict and intellectually uncompromising interpretation of Christianity that demanded a thorough understanding of what, for Indonesians, were foreign scriptures, Christianity advanced little in Indonesia until the nineteenth century.

Only a few small communities endured, in Java, Maluku, northern Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara primarily on the islands of Roti and Timor. After the dissolution of the VOC in , and the adoption of a more comprehensive view of their mission in the archipelago, the Dutch permitted Christian proselytizing in the territory.

This evangelical freedom was put to use by the more tolerant German Lutherans, who began work in Sumatra among the Toba Batak in , and by the Dutch Rhenish Mission in central Kalimantan in In addition, Jesuits established successful Catholic missions, schools, and hospitals throughout the islands of Flores, Timor, and Alor in the late nineteenth century.

The twentieth century witnessed the influx of many new Protestant missionary groups, as well as the continued growth of Catholicism and of large regional and reformed Lutheran churches.

Following the coup attempt, all nonreligious persons were labeled atheists and hence were vulnerable to accusations of harboring communist sympathies.

At that time, Christian churches of all varieties experienced explosive growth in membership, particularly among people who felt uncomfortable with the political aspirations of Islamic parties.

Between and an estimated 50 Christian churches were burned down in all of Indonesia. In , more than were burned down.

Muslim-Christian relations have been tense since colonial times. These tensions were exacerbated under Suharto by the transmigration program, which brought large numbers of Muslims to previously predominately Christian islands and regions.

The end of the Suharto regime in led to an uncorking of tensions. A lack of authority by commanders over Muslim and Christian troops in the outer islands has made the problem worse.

Conflicts between religions have often had more to do with class differences, particularly between the bureaucratic class and villagers.

Any outbreak of violence between ethnic or religious groups was quickly and sternly repressed. Tensions simmered below the surface, however.

Sporadic incidents had already begun in when the New Order still appeared quite solid, with church burnings in such places as Pasuruan in Jawa Timur and Tasikmalaya in Jawa Barat.

Security forces were initially ineffective in regaining control because the police, poorly trained, poorly equipped, and understaffed, were ill prepared to handle large-scale unrest.

The TNI Indonesian military , stung by accusations of human-rights abuses, and resentful of the change in mission responsibility, was reluctant to intervene without a formal request for assistance from local authorities.

More than 5, people were killed between and Conflict broke out in Maluku Province in after a seemingly minor clash between a bus driver and a passenger who refused to pay his fare exploded into wide-ranging Muslim—Christian violence in Ambon that quickly expanded throughout the Maluku Islands.

In January , following the expulsion of Ambonese gangs from Jakarta to Ambon, as well as the breakdown of informal ethnic power-sharing agreements in Maluku Province, a minor traffic accident in Ambon exploded into terrible and sustained violence between Muslims and Christians in that city.

Over the next three years, several thousand members of both communities were killed, and parts of the city became no-go zones for one group or the other.

Extremist Muslim groups such as Laskar Jihad—allegedly supported by like-minded senior military officers— flocked to Ambon and played a major role in the dramatic expansion of violence in that city.

The violence that erupted in Kalimantan Barat was even more horrific, as indigenous Christian Dayaks in rural Sambas District went on a rampage against Muslim Madurese in-migrants who had taken a prominent role in local commerce and agriculture.

Hundreds were killed, some of their severed heads left on poles as a warning to others, and many houses burned to the ground.

Islamic militants in Jakarta called for jihad to support their coreligionists on the islands. During the same period, Muslim—Christian violence flared in Tengah, around the cities of Poso and Tentena, where Laskar Jihad and the more sinister Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist group had established a training camp.

The missionaries also bought 1, Dayak slaves over the period to to emancipate them as free men. Despite their efforts, only a few hundred were baptised.

In the Banjarmasin War broke out, several missionaries were killed, and the mission was excluded from the region until by the Dutch, which fought to bring the former Sultanate of Banjarmasin under direct rule.

In the missionaries returned. Despite building many mission stations and schools, only 3, had converted by , as against , Batak Christians in the similarly resourced Rhenish mission of North Sumatra.

It has been suggested that this slow progress was due to the fragmented nature of the Dayaks—with no king or dominant regional powers, there was little prospect of mass conversion, while new converts faced exclusion from their traditional ceremonies.

In the church became the more ethnically inclusive 'Gereja Kalimantan Evangelis' GKE as transmigrants from other parts of Indonesia to Kalimantan joined the congregation.

The church has approximately , members, and is based in Central Kalimantan. The Vatican agreed a Concordat with the Dutch in that Kalimantan was a possible mission area, provided they did not settle on rivers where other missionaries were already active.

Chinese, historically a major force in West Kalimantan, included among their number some Catholics, who had migrated from other parts of the region.

A first church was consecrated in Singkawang in , and from here in the post was established as a pastoral centre for the Jesuit priest who would be responsible for the area.

A mission to the Dayaks of Sejiram was established in , and a church [29] constructed. The Singkawang and Sejiram missions closed in and , respectively, due to lack of personnel.

The mission was re-established in Singkawang with Capuchin Friars in The first new missions — were aimed at the coastal Chinese of Pamangkat , Pontianak location of West Kalimantan's Bishop, as it was the largest town in the region and Sambas , as well as the deep Dayak interior, where the Catholics hoped to convert without competition from Islam, before working back towards the coast.

Catholic growth prior to World War Two was slow, but subsequently saw some success, most notably after and the New Order Indonesia , where all Indonesians were required to proclaim an approved religion.

Growth in the Catholic population from to in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pontianak was from 1. Missionaries of the Christian and Missionary Alliance began one of several Indonesian missions in East Kalimantan in in the region of Kutai.

The West Kalimantan mission, established in in Pontianak ventured up the Kapuas River , where they found existing Catholic converts, some of whom converted to Protestantism.

While the Portuguese religious influence over Malacca and Sumatra was very small, their mission to Maluku , the important spice islands of the eastern archipelago, was more significant.

They landed first in Ambon, where the natives were already polarised into 'uli-lima' group of five and 'uli-siwa' group of nine , the former having converted to Islam and allying with the Muslim Javanese, with the latter retaining traditional beliefs.

The Portuguese found themselves allied with the ulu-siwa, whose opposition to the uli-lima made Christianity an appealing choice.

The Islamic Sultanate of Ternate sought the patronage of the Portuguese, offering a trading monopoly in return for military support against rival local kingdoms.

In , the first Catholic community was established in Halmahera , the result of an appeal to the Portuguese for protection from Halmahera against Ternatean incursions—protection offered on condition of converting to Christianity.

Further evangelising resulted in many Ternate nobles converting to Christianity, while Francis Xavier , a Catholic missionary and co-founder of the Jesuit Order worked in Ternate, Moro and Ambon briefly in and also St Francis wrote that most of the population were 'pagan', and hated the local Muslims, resisting conversion to Islam.

He appealed for support to save souls in Maluku, which arrived in in the shape of Nuno Ribeiro, a Jesuit who is said to have converted five hundred people before being murdered in Sultan Hairun of Ternate had refused to convert to Christianity, regarding himself as defender of the Islamic faith, and when he was murdered by a Portuguese Captain in , his son, Baabullah, the new Sultan, reacted angrily, expelling the Portuguese from Maluku, waging war against both the Portuguese and their local Christian allies.

As a result, the Jesuit mission was abandoned almost entirely in , and Christians were killed or converted at the point of a sword.

The faith survived only around the Jesuit fort in Ambon ; even there, there was a shortage of priests due to dangerous conditions, and many local people did not have knowledge of Christian creeds, and were easily apostatised to Islam or traditional beliefs.

The Portuguese by now largely impotent, the Dutch, allied with the Muslim locals against their mutual Portuguese enemy, seized the fort of Ambon in The Dutch expelled the Jesuits and Portuguese, adopting the Catholic churches for Protestant worship, which was supported through the establishment of numerous Protestant schools, where the teachers also led Sunday worship.

Boundaries between Muslim and Christians were well-established on Ambon, but in Seram and Buru , proselytisation took place converting 'pagans' to Christianity, the policy of the VOC being to contain the spread of Islam without converting existing Muslims.

Idols were destroyed by the Dutch teachers as new Christians were prohibited from continuing to follow their traditional religion.

Papua, unlike the rest of Indonesia, has had no historic contact with Muslim preachers, and had its first Christian missionary contact in With little competition, the mission was relatively successful.

Missionaries Carl Ottow and Johann Geisler, under the initiative of Ottho Gerhard Heldring , entered Papua at Mansinam island, near Manokwari on 5 February , and are said to have knelt on the beach and prayed, claiming Papua for Christ.

Since , the fifth of February has been a Papuan public holiday, recognising this first landing. Ottow and Geisler studied the Numfor language , and were subsequently granted a monthly stipend by the Dutch government.

The missionaries proposed a scheme to start a tobacco plantation using Christian Javanese to train the Papuans, and were given 5, guilders by the Dutch and two Christian Javanese tobacco farmers.

The Dutch administrators perceived the missionaries activities as a cut-price means of colonisation, while the missionaries themselves made profits from trading Papuan goods.

The Utrecht Mission Society UZV joined the mission from ; they were prohibited from trade, and instead established a trading committee.

The UZV established a Christian-based education system as well as regular church services. Initially the Papuans' attendance was encouraged using bribes of betel nut and tobacco, but subsequently this was stopped.

In addition, slaves were bought to be raised as step children and then freed. By , only 20 Papuans had been baptised, including many freed slaves.

The Dutch government established posts in Netherlands New Guinea in , a move welcomed by the missionaries, who saw orderly Dutch rule as the essential antidote to Papua paganism.

Subsequently, the UZV mission had more success, with a mass conversion near Cenderawasih Bay in and the evangelisation of the Sentani people by Pamai, a native Papuan in the late s.

Due to the Great Depression , the mission suffered a funding shortfall, and switched to native evangelists, who had the advantage of speaking the local language rather than Malay , but were often poorly trained.

By the mission had expanded to schools in congregations. The first Catholic presence in Papua was in Fakfak , a Jesuit mission in In the Vicariate of Netherlands New Guinea was established.

Despite the earlier activity in Fakfak, the Dutch restricted the Catholic Church to the southern part of the island, where they were active especially around Merauke.

The mission campaigned against promiscuity and the destructive practices of headhunting among the Marind-anim. Following the flu pandemic , which killed one in five in the area, the Dutch government agreed to the establishment of model villages, based on European conditions, including wearing European clothes, but which the people would submit to only by violence.

In the Catholics sought to re-establish their mission in Fakfak; permission was granted in This brought the Catholics into conflict with the Protestants in North Papua, who suggested expanding to South Papua in retaliation.

The Catholics and Protestants also began a race for the highlands. After World War Two, New Guinea remained outside of Indonesian control, under Dutch administration, but in , it was absorbed under dubious circumstances into Indonesia.

The Indonesians were suspicious of 'Dutch' elements, which included church teachers and missionaries, who had been educated in Dutch fashion, and began an overnight Indonesianisation.

Papua acquired a significant population of mostly Muslim transmigrants , who were given land and a house by the Indonesian government.

Religious differences as well as cultural with Muslim Indonesian army and administrators have exacerbated the Papua conflict , in which over thousands of Papuans have been killed by Indonesian security forces.

Church leaders, suspected of Papuan nationalism, were strictly monitored and in many cases killed where they strayed too close to Papuan separatist movements.

The pork-eating leaders of Makassar in southern Sulawesi expressed an interest in Christianity on several occasions in the 16th century, and while a request was made to Malacca for missionaries, none were forthcoming, perhaps because of the lack of commercial opportunities spices in the area, and from the area converted to Islam, having received instruction in the faith from Johor.

Subsequently, following the fall of Portuguese Malacca, many Catholics, including Jesuit priests, fled to Makassar, which was tolerant of their faith, but by the Dutch forced the expulsion of the Portuguese, who fled to Macau and Flores.

The Portuguese baptised over a thousand in Manado , where the Portuguese, and Christianity, were seen as a bulwark against the powerful Ternate Sultanate directly due east.

Portuguese missionary activity continued in northern Sulawesi between and , but following the murder of Sultan Hairun in Ternate and the ensuing anti-Portuguese attacks, the mission was abandoned.

In the Spanish-controlled Sangihe Islands and Talaud Islands in the kingdom of Siau , lying directly north of northern Sulawesi, Catholicism had been adopted with some enthusiasm, and when the allied Dutch-Ternatean Muslim pillaged the islands in and , help was sought from the Philippines to the north.

Franciscans visited from Manila , as did a Jesuit mission. Jesuit missionaries were also active in Minahasa and neighbouring areas in the first half of the 17th century, but attacks from Muslims from Ternate as well as local animist peoples meant that priests had a short life expectancy.

From to the Dutch established firm control of northern Sulawesi, and Catholicism was prohibited by the ruling VOC.

With Catholicism harshly suppressed, as in Ambon in Maluku, the people of Minahasa, the Sangihe and Talaud islands are to this day almost entirely Protestant the Dutch replacing the Catholic infrastructure with the schools of Dutch Protestantism , although in the 20th century fresh Catholic mission activity commenced.

The largely mountainous ' Bataklands ' of North Sumatra were surrounded to the north by the staunchly Islamic Acehnese, to the south by the Islamic Minangkabau and to the east by the Malays also Muslims.

The 'Bataks' were regarded by outsiders as a race of pagan cannibals, and it was largely their rejection of Islam that distinguished them from their neighbours.

At the turn of the 19th century the southernmost Batak people, the Mandailing came, through their subjection in the Padri War , to follow Islam, rejecting traditional beliefs and, frequently, their identity as 'Batak'.

Further north, however, Batak proved more resistant to the hostile Muslim invaders, and receptive indeed to Christianity. The first missionaries were sent by Stamford Raffles in , at which time Sumatra was under temporary British rule.

They observed that the Batak seemed receptive to new religious thought, and were likely to fall to the first mission, either Islamic or Christian, to attempt conversion.

A second mission that in of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions met with a brutal end when its two missionaries were killed by Batak resistant to outside interference in their traditional adat.

Three missionaries from an independent church in Ermelo , Netherlands arrived in , and on 7 October one of the Ermelo missionaries united with the Rhenish Missionary Society, which had been recently expelled from Kalimantan as a result of the Banjarmasin War.

The mission was immensely successful, being well supported financially from Germany, and adopted effective evangelistic strategies led by Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen , who spent most of his life from until his death in in North Sumatra, successfully converting many among the Simalungun and Batak Toba as well as a minority of Angkola.

Nommensen initially established Huta Dame, his 'village of peace', as Christian converts were excluded from their home villages, becoming knowledgeable in matters of Batak custom.

Nommensen's success was supported by Peter Johannsen, who arrived in , and has been praised for the quality of his Batak translations, as well as by respected Batak Raja Pontas, an early convert.

Nommensen's theology saw Christianity as renewing rather than replacing traditional Batak customs, except in cases where adat were in direct contradiction to the Christian faith.

To meet the desire for education, a seminary was established, along with elementary schools in Christian villages. The distinct identity of Batak Toba people, separate from their Muslim neighbours, and their future role within Indonesia was thus assured.

As the process of decolonising continued following World Wars 1 and 2, the HKBP continued to grow, not just in the tanah Batak, but also in Java and Medan, where many Bataks were seeking economic opportunities.

A growing disquiet at Toba 'imperialism' resulted in the establishment of the Gereja Kristen Protestan Simalungun and Gereja Kristen Protestan Angkola in the s, both of which were expressions of a movement towards the native Simalungun and Angkola languages and traditions as against those of the Toba among their communities.

While the traditional Batak church grew through rejecting only 'negative' adat, there is a more-recent anti-adat movement among Pentecostalists that perceives non-Christian elements of Batak culture, such as ulos as satanic.

The Batak Karo people were harassing European interests in east Sumatra, and Jacob Theodoor Cremer , a Dutch administrator regarded evangelism as a means to suppress this activity.

The Netherlands Missionary Society answered the call, commencing activities in the Karolands in , where they engaged not only in evangelism, but also in ethnology and documenting the Karo culture.

The missionaries attempted to construct a base in Kabanjahe in the Karo highlands, but were repelled by the suspicious locals.

In retaliation the Dutch administration waged a war to conquer the Karolands, as part of their final consolidation of power in the Indies.

The Karo perceived Christianity as the 'Dutch religion', and its followers as 'dark-skinned Dutch'. In this context, the Karo church was initially unsuccessful, and by the church had only 5, members.

In the years following Indonesian independence the perception of Christianity among the Karo as an emblem of colonialism faded, with the church itself adopting more elements of traditional Karo culture such as music previously the brass band was promoted , and by the Karo church had grown to some 35, members, with 60, baptised in — From 5, Muslims mostly non-Karo in Karoland in , there were 30, in By this time the separation of church and state had been established in The Netherlands.

La delegazione apostolica dell'arcipelago indonesiano fu istituita il 7 luglio con il breve De animarum salute di papa Pio XII.

La delegazione apostolica di Indonesia fu elevata al rango di internunziatura il 15 marzo con il breve Id maxime Nostrum dello stesso papa Pio XII.

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Chiesa cattolica in Indonesia. Categoria : Chiesa cattolica in Indonesia.

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